THE STUDY ABOUT MEDIA ORGANIZATIONS AND ITS INFLUENCE TO THE SOCIETY
In society the media have their own purpose and function (prestige newspaper, porn, comics, etc)
2 issues: 1) degree of freedom and constraint enjoyed by a medium in society and by media personnel in the organization 2) concern of to which extent idealistic and spiritual can served the utilitarian objectives
Ambiguity Of Organizational Purpose
Goals of organization according to Etzioni (1961) 1) coercive; the use of threat to achieve org’s goals 2) Utilitarian; the org’s aims to produce/provide material goods/services as part of business 3) normative; goals with aims more to some valued condition, based on the voluntary commitment of its member (CSR for example)
Media, shows a mixture of “utilitarian” and “normative”. But, in my opinion, in Indonesia, media shows mixture of those 3 typology. “coercive” often used, intentional or unintentionally to cause alarm and fear.
According to Tunstall (1971), he stated that the goals of newspaper can be distinguished between revenue goals and non-revenue goal.
Non revenue is purposes w/o direct financial aspect: gaining prestige, exercising influence & power in society, achieving some moral end, etc.
To understand the purpose of media in society is important to know the pressure they have.
Engwall (1978) said newspaper is an hybrid-organization because it can’t be clearly placed on either 2 key organizational dimensions (Ellis & Child, 1973) (service and product dimension).
The Media Occupational Role
The role of media journalists is characterized by two main kind of ambiguity. 1) having to do with his/her position in society 2) having to do with their professionalism.
antecedent phase of media production
Elliot (1972) said the more production control media gives the more limited the direct access by the society. See. typology.
In this typology, “news” comes in the middle, which means the scope of production is more or less equal to the scope for society to claim direct access.
news, however, still have to pass the gates of the media.
Gatekeeper : the process of selecting news before it goes to society.
The critics is how the editor filters the message, is there any filter that value free? is there any standard for filtering the news?